Publications

2020

Hone, L. S. E., McCauley, T. G., Pedersen, E. J., Carter, E. C. & McCullough, M. E. (2020). The sex premium in religiously motivated moral judgement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. PDF.

McAuliffe, W.H.B., Moshontz, H., McCauley, T.G., & McCullough, M.E. (2020). Searching for prosociality in qualitative data: Comparing manual, closed-vocabulary, and open-vocabulary methods. European Journal of Personality. DOI:10.1002/per.2240

Smith, A., McCauley, T.G., Yagi, A. Yamaura, K. Shimizu, H., McCullough, M.E., & Ohtsubo, Y. (2020). Perceived goal instrumentality is associated with forgiveness: A test of the valuable relationships hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 41, 58-68. PDF.

2019

McAuliffe, W. H. B., & Burton-Chellew, M., & McCullough, M. E. (2019). Cooperation and learning in unfamiliar situations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28, 436-440. PDF.

McAuliffe, W.H.B., Carter, E.C., Berhane, J., Snihur, A.C., & McCullough, M.E. (2019). Is empathy the default response to suffering? A meta-analytic evaluation of perspective-taking's effect on empathic concern. Personality and Social Psychology Review. PDF.

McAuliffe, W.H.B. & McCullough, M.E. (2019). Moral reasoning performance determines epistemic peerdom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 42, e161. DOI:10.1017/S0140525X18002595

McAuliffe, W. H. B., Pedersen, E. J., Forster, D., & McCullough, M. E. (2019). Does cooperation in the laboratory reflect the operation of a broad trait? European Journal of Personality, 33, 89-103. PDF.

Pedersen, E.J., McAuliffe, W.H.B., Shah, Y., Tanaka, H., Ohtsubo, Y., & McCullough, M.E. (2019). When and why do third parties punish outside of the lab? A cross-cultural recall study. Social Psychological and Personality Science. PDF.

2018

Billingsley J., Gomes C.M. & McCullough M.E. (2018). Implicit and explicit influences of religious cognition on Dictator Game transfers. Royal Society Open Science 5: 170238. PDF.

Carter, E. C., & McCullough, M. E. (2018). A simple, principled approach to combining evidence from meta-analysis and high-quality replications. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1, 174-185. PDF.

McAuliffe, W., Forster, D., Pedersen, E. J., & McCullough, M. E. (2018). Experience with anonymous interactions reduces intuitive cooperation. Nature: Human Behavior, 2, 909-914. PDF.

McAuliffe, W. H. B., Forster, D. E., Philippe, J., & McCullough, M. E. (2018). Digital altruists: Resolving key questions about the empathy-altruism hypothesis in an Internet sample. Emotion, 18, 493-506. PDF.

Pedersen, E. J., McAuliffe, W. H. B., & McCullough, M. E. (2018). The unresponsive avenger: More evidence that disinterested third parties do not punish altruistically. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 147, 514-544. PDF.

2017

Forster, D.E., Pedersen, E.J., Smith, A., McCullough, M.E., & Lieberman, D. (2017). Benefit valuation predicts gratitude. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(1), 18-26. PDF.

McAuliffe, W.H.B. & McCullough, M.E. (2017). Validation is a Galilean enterprise. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(3), 279-280. PDF.

Smith, A., Pedersen, E.J., Forster, D.E., McCullough, M.E., & Lieberman, D. (2017). Cooperation: The roles of interpersonal value and gratitude. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38, 695-703. PDF.

2016

McCullough, M.E. & Reed, L. I. (2016). What the face communicates: Clearing the conceptual ground. Current Opinion of Psychology, 7, 110-114. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Swartwout, P., Shaver, J. H., Carter, E. C., & Sosis, R. (2016). Christian religious badges instill trust in Christian and non-Christian perceivers. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 8(2), 149-163. PDF.

2014

Carter, E. C., & McCullough, M. E. (2014). Publication bias and the limited strength model of self-control: Has the evidence for ego depletion been overestimated? Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 823. PDF.

Carver, C. S., Johnson, S. L., McCullough, M. E., Forster, D. E., & Joormann, J. (2014). Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1357. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., & Kelly, D. L. (2014). A trading scheme to reduce false positives. Nature, 508, 319. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Pedersen, E. J., Tabak, B. A., & Carter, E. C. (2014). Conciliatory gestures promote forgiveness and reduce anger in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 12111-12116. PDF.

Pedersen, E. J., Forster, D. E., & McCullough, M. E. (2014). Life history, code of honor, and emotional responses to inequality in an economic game. Emotion, 14, 920-929. PDF.

2013

Carter, E. C., & McCullough, M. E. (2013). After a pair of self-control-intensive tasks, sucrose swishing improves subsequent working memory performance. BMC Psychology, 1, 22. PDF.

Carter, E. C., & McCullough, M. E. (2013). Is ego depletion too incredible? Evidence for the overestimation of the depletion effect. Behavioral and Brain sciences, 36, 683-684. PDF.

Hone, L. S. E., McCullough, M. E., & Carter, E. C. (2013). Drinking games as a venue for sexual competition. Evolutionary Psychology, 11(4), 889-906. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Churchland, P. S., & Mendez, A. J. (2013). Problems with measuring peripheral oxytocin: Can the data on oxytocin and human behavior be trusted? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, 1485-1492. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Kurzban, R., & Tabak, B. A. (2013). Cognitive systems for revenge and forgiveness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36, 1-58. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., & Pedersen, E. J. (2013). The evolution of generosity: How natural selection builds devices for benefit-delivery. Social Research, 80, 387-410. PDF.

McCullough, M.E., Pedersen, E.J., Schroder, J.M., Tabak, B.A., Carver, C.S. (2013). Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans. Proc. R. Soc. B. 280. PDF.

Pedersen, E.J., Kurzban, R., McCullough, M.E. (2013). Do humans really punish altruistically? A closer look. Proc. R. Soc. B. 280. PDF.

2012

Carter, E. C., McCullough, M. E., & Carver, C. S. (2012). The mediating role of monitoring in the association of religion with self-control. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 691-697. PDF.

Carter, E. C., McCullough, M. E., Kim, J., Corrales, C., Blake, A. (2012). Religious people discount the future less. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33(3), 224-231. PDF.

Hone, L.S., McCullough, M.E., (2012). 2D:4D ratios predict hand grip strength (but not hand grip endurance) in men (but not in women). Evolution and Human Behavior, 33, 780-789. PDF.

Krasnow, M. M., Cosmides, L., Pedersen, E. J., Tooby, J. (2012). What are punishment and reputation for? PLoS ONE, 7(9): e45662. PDF.

Tabak, B. A., McCullough, M. E., Root, L. M., Bono, G., & Berry, J. W. (2012). Conciliatory gestures facilitate forgiveness and feelings of friendship by making transgressors seem more agreeable. Journal of Personality, 80, 503-536. PDF.

2011

Burnette, J. L., McCullough, M. E., Van Tongeren, D. R., & Davis, D. E. (2011) Forgiveness results from integrating information about relationship value and exploitation risk. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(3) 345–356. PDF.

Tabak, B. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2011). Perceived transgressor agreeableness decreases cortisol response and increases forgiveness following recent interpersonal transgressions. Biological Psychology, 87, 386-392. PDF.

Tabak, B. A., McCullough, M. E., Szeto, A., Mendez, A. J., McCabe, P. M. (2011). Oxytocin indexes relational distress following interpersonal harms in women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 115-122. PDF.

2010

McCullough, M. E., Kurzban, R., & Tabak, B. A. (2010). Evolved mechanisms for revenge and forgiveness. In P. R. Shaver and M. Mikulincer (eds.), Understanding and reducing aggression, violence, and their consequences (pp. 221-239). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Luna, L. R., Berry, J. W., Tabak, B. A., & Bono, G. (2010). On the form and function of forgiving: Modeling the time-forgiveness relationship and testing the valuable relationships hypothesis. Emotion, 10, 358-376. PDF.

2009

Kim, J., Nesselroade, J. R., & McCullough, M. E. (2009). Dynamic factor analysis of worldviews/ religious beliefs and well-being among older adults. Journal of Adult Development, 16, 87-100. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Friedman, H. S., Enders, C. K., & Martin, L. R. (2009). Does devoutness delay death? Psychological investment in religion and its association with mortality in the Terman sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(5), 866-882. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Root, L. M., Tabak, B., & Witvliet, C. v. O. (2009). Forgiveness. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Handbook of Positive Psychology (2nd ed.). (pp. 427-435). New York: Oxford. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., & Willoughby, B. L. B. (2009). Religion, self-control, and self-regulation: Associations, explanations, and implications. Psychological Bulletin. PDF.

2008

Bono, G., McCullough, M. E., & Root, L. M. (2008). Forgiveness, feeling connected to others, and well-being: Two longitudinal studies. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 182-195. PDF.

Hill, T. D., & McCullough, M. E. (2008). Religious involvement and the intoxication trajectories of low income urban women. Journal of Drug Issues, 43, 847-862. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Kimeldorf, M. B., & Cohen, A. D. (2008). An adaptation for altruism? The social causes, social effects, and social evolution of gratitude. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 281-284. PDF.

2007

McCullough, M. E., & Boker, S. M. (2007). Dynamical modeling for studying self-regulatory processes: An example from the study of religious development over the life span. In A. D. Ong and M. van Dulmen (Eds.), Handbook of methods in positive psychology (pp. 380-394). New York: Oxford. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Bono, G., & Root, L. M. (2007). Rumination, emotion, and forgiveness: Three longitudinal studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 490-505. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Orsulak, P., Brandon, A., & Akers, L. (2007). Rumination, fear, and cortisol: An in vivo study of interpersonal transgressions. Health Psychology, 26, 126-132. PDF.

2006

Bono, G. & McCullough M. E. (2006). Positive responses to benefit and harm: Bringing forgiveness and gratitude into cognitive psychotherapy. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20, 147-158. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., & Polak, E. (2006). Change and stability during the third age: Longitudinal investigations of self-rated health and religiousness with the Terman sample. In J. B. James and P. Wink (Eds.), The crown of life: Dynamics of the early postretirement period (pp. 175-192). New York: Springer. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Root, L. M., & Cohen, A. D. (2006). Writing about the benefits of an interpersonal transgression facilitates forgiveness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 887-897. PDF.

Polak, E., & McCullough, M. E. (2006). Is gratitude an alternative to materialism? Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 343-360. PDF.

Tsang, J., McCullough, M. E., & Fincham, F. D. (2006). The longitudinal association between forgiveness and relationship closeness and commitment. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25, 448-472. PDF.

2005

Hoyt, W. T., Fincham, F. D., McCullough, M. E., Maio, G., & Davila, J. (2005). Responses to interpersonal transgressions in families: Forgivingness, forgivability, and relationship-specific effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 375-394. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Enders, C. K., Brion, S. L., & Jain, A. R. (2005). The varieties of religious development in adulthood: A longitudinal investigation of religion and rational choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 78-89. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2005). Religiousness and the trajectory of self-rated health across adulthood. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 560-573. PDF.

Tsang, J., McCullough, M. E., & Hoyt, W. T. (2005). Psychometric and rationalization accounts for the religion-forgiveness discrepancy. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 785-805. PDF.

2004

Bono, G., & McCullough, M. E. (2004). Religion, forgiveness, and adjustment in older adults. In K. W. Schaie, N. Krause & A. Booth (Eds.), Religious influences on health and well-being in the elderly (pp. 163-186). New York: Springer. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Tsang, J., & Emmons, R. A. (2004). Gratitude in intermediate affective terrain: Links of grateful moods to individual differences and daily emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 295-309. PDF.

2003

Exline, J. J., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Hill, P. C., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Forgiveness and justice: A research agenda for social and personality psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7, 337-348. PDF.

Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 377-389. PDF.

Kendler, K., Liu, X., Gardner, C. O., McCullough, M. E., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Dimensions of religiosity and their relationship to lifetime psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 496-503. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., Kilpatrick, S. D., & Mooney, C. N. (2003). Narcissists as “victims”: The role of narcissism in the perception of transgressions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 885-893. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Fincham, F. D., & Tsang, J. (2003). Forgiveness, forbearance, and time: The temporal unfolding of transgression-related interpersonal motivations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 540-557. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Tsang, J., & Brion, S. (2003). Personality traits in adolescence as predictors of religiousness in early adulthood: Findings from the Terman Longitudinal Study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 980-991. PDF.

Smith, T. B., McCullough, M. E., & Poll, J. (2003). Religiousness and depression: Evidence for a main effect and the moderating influence of stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 614-636. PDF.

Worthington, E. L., Jr., Wade, N. G., Hight, T. L., Ripley, J. S., McCullough, M. E., Berry, J. W., Berry, J. T., Schmidt, M. M., Berry, J. T., Bursley, K. H., & O’Connor, L. (2003). The Religious Commitment Inventory-10: Development, refinement, and validation of a brief scale for research and counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 84-96. PDF.

2002

McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112-127. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., & Hoyt, W. T. (2002). Transgression-related motivational dispositions: Personality substrates of forgiveness and their links to the Big Five. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1556-1573. PDF.

2001

McCullough, M. E. (2001). Forgiveness: Who does it and how do they do it? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 194-197. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Bellah, C. G., Kilpatrick, S. D., & Johnson, J. L. (2001). Vengefulness: Relationships with forgiveness, rumination, well-being, and the Big Five. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 601-610. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 249-266. PDF.

2000

George, L. K., Larson, D. B., Koenig, H. G., & McCullough, M. E. (2000). Spirituality and health: What we know, what we need to know. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 102-116. PDF.

Hill, P. C., Pargament, K. I., Hood, R. W., McCullough, M. E., Swyers, J. P., Larson,D. B., & Zinnbauer, B. J. (2000). Conceptualizing religion and spirituality: Points of commonality, points of departure. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30, 51-77. PDF.

McCullough, M. E. (2000). Forgiveness as human strength: Theory, measurement, and links to well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 43-55. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., Hoyt, W. T., Larson, D. B., Koenig, H. G., & Thoresen, C. E. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality: A meta-analytic review. Health Psychology, 19, 211-222. PDF. (Here's Sloan and Bagiella's letter to the editor in response to this article, and our reply. PDF.)

1999

Kilpatrick, S. D., & McCullough, M. E. (1999). Religion and spirituality in rehabilitation psychology. Rehabilitation Psychology, 44, 388-402. PDF.

McCullough, M. E. (1999). Research on religion-accommodative counseling: Review and meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 92-98. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., & Larson, D. B. (1999). Prayer. In W. R. Miller (Ed.), Integrating spirituality into treatment: Resources for practitioners (pp. 85-110). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. PDF.

McCullough, M. E., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (1999). Religion and the forgiving personality. Journal of Personality, 67, 1141-1164. PDF.

1998

McCullough, M. E., Rachal, K. C., Sandage, S. J., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Wade-Brown, S., & Hight, T. (1998). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships II: Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1586-1603. PDF.

1997

McCullough, M. E., Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Rachal, K. C. (1997). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 321-336. PDF. Note: Use of the five-item measure of forgiveness that we used in this study is not authorized. For more information, please see Robert D. Enright (1999), "Correction to McCullough et al. (1997)", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, p. 218.